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6O                                 SHIPPING  PRACTICE

It is curious to note that if the agreement states that
freight shall be paid in advance and it is not paid, and the
steamer meets with disaster before such payment is made,
the carrier is entitled to sue the shipper for payment of
advance freight.

The most simple method of ascertaining whether freight
is advance freight or not, is by finding who bears the insur-
ance. If shipper insures the freight, it is advance freight;
if shipowner bears the insurance, it is not advance freight.

Great care should be taken in dealing with this last type
of freight.

Stoppage in transitu* The carrier has the right of stop-
ping goods in transit if freight has not been paid when
freight is to be paid within a stipulated time before delivery.
He may instruct his master to hold or return the goods.
Should the shipper himself have paid the freight and
charges, and not have received payment from his con-
signee who refuses to pay, or becomes insolvent or bank-
rupt, he also may instruct the carrier to have the goods
stopped until such a time as he may notify him of receipt
of the charges, or if there is no chance of his consignee
paying for the goods then he may instruct the carrier to
return same to him. In this case back freight would be
chargeable to the shipper.